Definition of Equated Monthly Installment (EMI)


Key Takeaway:

  • Equated Monthly Installment (EMI) is a fixed payment amount made by a borrower to a lender at a specified date each month, to repay a loan in full over a specific period of time.
  • The components of EMI are principal amount, interest rate, and loan tenure, with each factor contributing to the overall EMI amount.
  • The calculation of EMI is done using a specific formula, taking into account the principal amount, interest rate, and loan tenure. It is important to calculate EMI accurately to plan finances and ensure timely repayment.
  • Advantages of EMI include predictable monthly payments, ease of budgeting, and accessibility to credit for large purchases. However, disadvantages include the cost of interest over time, the risk of default, and potential financial strain if the EMI amount is too high.

Do you want to take control of your finances? Learning the basics of Equated Monthly Installment (EMI) is a great way to start. With this article, you will understand all about EMI, how it works and how to calculate it.

Definition of Equated Monthly Installment (EMI)

Equated Monthly Installment (EMI) refers to the fixed amount of money paid by the borrower to the lender every month for the repayment of their loan or borrowed amount. This amount includes both the interest and principal amount, calculated based on the loan tenure and interest rate. EMI is usually paid through post-dated cheques or automatic debit from the borrower's bank account.

A borrower can use an EMI calculator to determine their monthly payment amount based on their loan amount, interest rate, and repayment tenure. Opting for a longer tenure may result in lower EMI but will also increase the overall interest paid. Various factors like credit score, income, and loan amount influence the EMI calculation.

Notably, EMI is a popular payment method in India, commonly used for repayment of home loans, car loans, and personal loans. Its invention dates back to the 1950s when the State Bank of India introduced it as a convenient repayment method for its customers.

Components of EMI

Knowledge of principal amount, interest rate, and loan tenure is needed to comprehend EMI components. These three constitute the base of the EMI computation you pay each month. Having a clear grasp of each element can help make smart financial choices and manage your loan efficiently.

Principal Amount

The core of an EMI is the borrowed amount known by a formal financial term. The principal amount is the sum that lending institutions lend to individuals or businesses that must be returned within the specified duration at a fixed interest rate. This amount usually decreases as it is repaid through subsequent loans.

Speaking of loan repayment, one must note that the principal amount has a direct effect on the EMI payable and the rate of interest applied to it. A higher principal amount leads to higher EMIs and vice versa, while a longer tenure minimizes EMI payments and makes them more affordable accordingly.

In addition to this, it's essential to keep in mind that prepayments do not necessarily lessen the overall cost of borrowing, but only affect internal returns from a personal finance perspective.

Pro Tip: Always opt for prepayments on principal amounts whenever feasible as even small amounts can make immense savings over time.

Interest rates may cause heart palpitations, but understanding them is the key to keeping your EMI under control.

Interest Rate

The cost of borrowing money is a crucial consideration when taking out a loan. Lenders charge an amount on top of the principal loan amount called the Annual Percentage Rate (APR). The APR is often used interchangeably with the interest rate, which represents a percentage of the original loan balance that a borrower pays over the loan term. A higher interest rate means higher monthly payments and overall cost of borrowing.

To calculate interest, lenders use various factors such as credit score, loan amount, loan tenure and collateral if any. Fixed-rate loans have a constant interest rate throughout while variable interest rate loans fluctuate with market rates. Borrowers should aim to negotiate for lower interest rates and save money in the long run by reducing their monthly EMI.

It is important to note that lenders may charge additional fees like processing fees, prepayment charges etc., which may add to the total borrowing cost apart from the advertised interest rate. Always read the fine print before signing up for a loan.

According to Bankrate survey, average interest rates on personal loans range from 6% to 36%.

When it comes to loan tenure, remember: the longer you pay, the more you pray.

Loan Tenure

The duration of time that a borrower is expected to pay for the loan amount, referred to as 'borrowing period'. The loan tenure varies for different loans and depends on factors like the loan amount, repayment capacity, and interest rates. The tenure can range from a few months to several years.

The loan tenure determines the number of EMIs that the borrower has to pay. A longer tenure may reduce the EMI but increase the interest payable while a shorter tenure may increase the EMI but lower interest costs. Additionally, borrowers may opt for prepayment or foreclosure of the loan before completion of the tenure, which would reduce overall interest costs.

It is advisable to choose a loan tenure based on one's repayments ability and financial goals. Borrowers must also consider the total interest payable over the entire borrowing period before finalizing their choice of loan tenure.

According to "," borrowers must negotiate with lenders to optimize their EMI payment as well as the total cost they have to bear throughout their borrowing period.

Get ready to crunch some numbers and make your bank account weep with the calculation of EMI.

Calculation of EMI

To work out EMIs for your loan, you need to be familiar with the formula for EMI calculation. This way, you can accurately compute the EMI. Knowing the importance of EMI calculation gives you an insight into your monthly budget. This helps when making financial decisions.

Formula for EMI Calculation

EMI Calculation Explained:

The EMI formula is a widely used method for calculating the equated monthly installment, a recurring payment made by borrowers towards clearing their debts. This formula calculates the EMI amount based on factors such as loan amount, interest rate and repayment tenure.

To compute the EMI, one needs to know the principal amount borrowed, the interest rate charged by the lender and the repayment period in months. The resultant calculation provides an accurate breakdown of each month's payment in terms of how much goes toward principal and how much goes towards interest.

It should be noted that this formula only works if the borrower repays the entire principal plus interest at every EMI payment, which may not always be possible. Additionally, prepayment options may also lead to fluctuations in EMIs.

A Brief History of EMI:

The concept of equated monthly installments has been around since at least the mid-20th century. It became a popular way of financing purchases such as homes or cars as it enabled consumers to pay back loans over extended periods comfortably. In recent years, with advancements in technology and financial markets, consumers can now calculate their EMIs online quickly and conveniently.

Paying attention to EMI calculation is important, unless you want to live your life as a permanent resident of the debt zone.

Importance of EMI Calculation

EMI calculation is a crucial aspect of personal finance management. Computing EMI for loans or credit card payments can help individuals with budgeting and planning expenses. Failing to calculate EMI can lead to financial strain and even defaults, which might have adverse effects on an individual's credit score. By accurately computing EMIs, individuals can better understand their financial commitments and plan accordingly.

Knowing how to calculate EMI accurately can prevent several issues related to loan repayments. It enables individuals to make informed decisions when choosing between multiple repayment options, such as longer tenures and larger EMIs or vice versa. Besides, accurate EMI calculations ensure that there are no discrepancies in interest rates or other charges levied by lending institutions.

It's important to note that there are several factors influencing the computation of EMI, such as interest rates, loan amount, tenure and type of loan. Any miscalculation in these parameters can result in incorrect EMI figures, which could potentially impact one's finances negatively. Hence it becomes imperative to compute accurate EMIs with diligence.

One instance where incorrect EMI calculations had devastating consequences occurred during the 2008 recession. Many homeowners underestimated the magnitude of their mortgage payments due to inconsistent calculators provided by lenders leading to several foreclosures of homes culminating in the subprime crisis.

EMI calculation might seem daunting at first; however, with the aid of online calculators or professional guidance from consultants in finance institutions, clarity is restored for individuals who intend on securing debt obligations. Therefore it is necessary for every individual seeking financial aid like loans or credit cards to learn EMI calculation practices proficiently for stable future money management skills.

EMI may make you a proud owner of a new car, but it can also make your bank account cry like a baby.

Advantages and Disadvantages of EMI

To comprehend EMI's pros and cons, delve into two sub-sections: advantages and disadvantages. Uncover the perks of cost-effective, fixed payments. Plus, find out the potential drawbacks and concealed costs of this payment technique.


One of the advantages of EMI is its convenience. EMI allows individuals to purchase goods and services without having to pay the entire amount upfront, making it easier for them to manage their finances. Moreover, EMI often comes with a lower interest rate than other types of loans, enabling individuals to save money in the long run.

Another benefit of EMI is that it provides flexibility. It allows individuals to choose the duration and frequency of their payments based on their financial situation. Additionally, EMI may also help improve an individual's credit score as timely payments can positively impact one's credit history.

It is important to note that while EMI may provide convenience and flexibility, it is important for individuals to understand the total cost of borrowing, including any hidden charges or fees that may apply. For example, some lenders may charge prepayment penalties or processing fees.

A well-known history related to the benefits of EMI was during the 2008 financial crisis in India. The government introduced various measures, including reducing interest rates on home loans and implementing tax benefits for those using EMI schemes. These measures helped revive the Indian housing industry and provided benefits for many homeowners who were struggling financially during that time.

EMI stands for Emptying My Income, as you'll be left with little to no money by the end of the month.


Despite being a common and convenient way of purchasing goods and services, there are some drawbacks to the use of EMI. This payment plan has been associated with several unfortunate outcomes that can affect both customers and companies.

  • Increasing Interest Rates - Financial institutions may increase their interest rates on EMI plans over time, causing customers to pay more than the original amount.
  • Hidden Fees - Some companies may charge additional fees on top of the agreed-upon EMI amount, which customers may not be aware of until it's too late.
  • Credit Score Damage - Defaulting on EMI payments can harm a customer's credit score, making it harder for them to secure loans or credit cards in the future.
  • Overspending - EMIs can lead people to purchase items beyond their budget, resulting in financial troubles later.
  • Lengthy Payment Periods The need for long-term payments results in an extended tie-up between the borrower and lender, affecting future borrowing opportunities.
  • Cancellation Costs Cancelling EMI plans often involves high cancellation charges that might negate any saving made from paying EMI instead of direct purchase costs

It is essential to remember that while EMIs offer flexibility in payments, they present inherent risks. Terms and conditions vary among lenders and should be reviewed thoroughly before entering into an agreement.

Interestingly, the use of EMIs dates back to ancient Babylonian civilization when people employed a system like rent-to-own schedules. This practice has evolved throughout history and today is widely used globally as an attractive payment method.

Some Facts About Equated Monthly Installment (EMI) Definition:

  • ✅ EMI is a fixed payment made by a borrower to a lender on a specific date each month. (Source: Axis Bank)
  • ✅ EMI consists of both the principal amount and the interest charged on the loan. (Source: BankBazaar)
  • ✅ EMI is calculated using a formula that takes into account the loan amount, tenure, and interest rate. (Source: ICICI Bank)
  • ✅ EMI is a popular method of financing for big-ticket purchases like homes, cars, and appliances. (Source: HDFC Bank)
  • ✅ EMI options are offered by various financial institutions with varying interest rates and repayment periods. (Source: Paisabazaar)

FAQs about Equated Monthly Installment (Emi) Definition

What is the definition of Equated Monthly Installment (EMI)?

Equated Monthly Installment (EMI) is a fixed payment amount made by a borrower to a lender for a specified period, which includes the principal amount and the interest component.

How is the Equated Monthly Installment (EMI) calculated?

EMI is calculated using a formula that takes into account the principal amount, interest rate and tenure of the loan. The formula is: EMI = P * r * (1 + r)^n / ((1 + r)^n - 1), where P is the principal amount, r is the interest rate and n is the number of months.

What is the difference between EMI and interest rate?

EMI is the fixed payment made by the borrower to the lender, which includes both principal and interest components. Interest rate is the rate at which the lender charges interest on the loan amount.

What happens if I miss an EMI payment?

If you miss an EMI payment, you will be charged a penalty fee by the lender. This penalty fee can vary depending on the lender and the terms and conditions of the loan agreement.

Can I prepay my loan before the end of the tenure?

Yes, you can prepay your loan before the end of the tenure. However, some lenders may charge a prepayment penalty fee. It is important to check with the lender before making a prepayment.

What are the factors that affect the Equated Monthly Installment (EMI) amount?

The Equated Monthly Installment (EMI) amount is affected by the principal amount borrowed, interest rate, and tenure of the loan. A higher principal amount, higher interest rate or longer tenure can result in a higher EMI amount.