# Gordon Growth Model (Ggm) Defined: Example And Formula

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## Key Takeaway:

• The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) is a fundamental tool for valuing stocks that pay dividends and have stable growth. It estimates the intrinsic value of a stock based on its dividends and expected growth rate over time.
• The formula for Gordon Growth Model (GGM) is: Intrinsic Value = Dividend (r - g), where r is the required rate of return and g is the expected growth rate of the stock's dividends.
• An example of Gordon Growth Model (GGM) would be estimating the intrinsic value of a company's stock by considering its current dividend rate, expected growth rate of dividends, and required rate of return. This information can help investors make informed decisions and determine if a stock is undervalued or overvalued.

You might be struggling to understand how to use the Gordon Growth Model (GGM) to evaluate and analyze a stock's potential. This article will explain the GGM formula and provide a comprehensive example to help you better understand it.

## What is the Gordon Growth Model (GGM)?

The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) is a financial model used to estimate the intrinsic value of a stock. It assumes that the value of a stock is equal to the sum of all expected future dividends, discounted at a constant rate of return.

The GGM formula can be expressed as V0 = D1 / (k - g), where V0 is the current stock price, D1 is next year's expected dividend payment, k is the required rate of return on the stock, and g is the expected dividend growth rate. The GGM is often used in conjunction with other financial models to help analysts determine whether a stock is undervalued or overvalued.

When using the GGM, it is important to consider the accuracy of the inputs, especially the expected dividend growth rate. Analysts may use historical data or industry trends to estimate the growth rate, but these methods may not always be reliable. It is also important to use an appropriate discount rate, which may vary depending on the risk associated with the stock and the broader economic climate.

To improve the accuracy of GGM calculations, analysts may consider using a range of growth rates and discount rates, rather than relying on a single estimate. Sensitivity analysis can also be conducted to determine how changes in the inputs affect the estimated stock price. Overall, the GGM is a useful tool for valuing stocks, but should be used in conjunction with other financial models and careful analysis.

## Formula for Gordon Growth Model (GGM)

The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) Formula is a widely used method for estimating the intrinsic value of a stock by using the constant growth rate of future dividends. According to this model, the stock price is the sum of the current dividend payment divided by the difference between the discount rate and the growth rate, resulting in a simple formula to determine the intrinsic value of a stock.

Formula Explanation V = D / (k-g) V is the current intrinsic value of the stock V = current dividend priced at time 0 / (required rate - growth rate) D is the expected dividend for the following year k = required rate of return by investor k is the investor's desired rate of return for the investment g = expected annual growth rate of dividend payments g is the expected growth rate for the dividend payments

It is worth noting that the GGM is based on several assumptions that may not reflect the current reality of the market. These assumptions include a constant growth rate, constant dividend payout ratio, and infinite time horizon, among others. Additionally, some analysts may prefer other methods to estimate the intrinsic value of a stock.

A study published in the Journal of Applied Accounting Research found that the Gordon Growth Model is one of the most widely used methods in practice by investment professionals to value stocks.

## Example of Gordon Growth Model (GGM)

The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) is a commonly used method for determining the intrinsic value of a stock by estimating its future dividends and discounting them back to their present value. Here's an example of how the GGM can be applied to a specific company:

Company Dividend Growth Rate Discount Rate Intrinsic Value ABC Company \$1.50 5% 8% \$37.50

Assuming that ABC Company's current dividend is \$1.50 and its growth rate is 5%, and using a discount rate of 8%, we can estimate that ABC Company's intrinsic value is \$37.50. This means that the stock is undervalued if its current market price is lower than \$37.50, and overvalued if its market price is higher.

It's important to note that the GGM is based on several assumptions that may not always hold true, such as a constant growth rate and a stable dividend policy. Therefore, it's important to use the GGM along with other methods and to carefully consider all relevant factors when making investment decisions.

When applying the GGM, it's also important to consider any potential risks or uncertainties that may affect the future dividends of the company, such as changes in market conditions or regulatory policies.

This model was named after Myron J. Gordon, an economist and professor at the University of Toronto, who developed it in collaboration with Eli Shapiro in the 1950s. Since then, the GGM has been widely used by investors and analysts as a tool for evaluating stocks.

## Limitations of Gordon Growth Model (GGM)

The Drawbacks of Gordon Growth Model (GGM)

Gordon Growth Model (GGM) has certain limitations that may affect its accuracy in stock valuation. One issue is the model's reliance on constant dividend growth rate assumptions, which do not consider changes in the industry or company. Additionally, GGM assumes that growth rates are perpetual, which is unrealistic as companies grow and eventually reach maturity.

Furthermore, GGM is sensitive to cost of equity and dividend payout ratio estimates, which can be difficult to predict accurately. This model also overlooks the effects of inflation and other economic factors on stock prices.

To improve the accuracy of stock valuations, analysts can use additional models, like the discounted cash flow (DCF) method, that consider more variables and do not rely on constant growth rate assumptions. Additionally, it is recommended to look at historical trends and industry comparisons when forecasting growth rates and estimating costs of equity.

## Five Facts About Gordon Growth Model (GGM) Defined: Example and Formula:

• ✅ The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) is a dividend discount model used to value a stock or business. (Source: Investopedia)
• ✅ The formula for the Gordon Growth Model is: V = D /(r-g). (Source: My Accounting Course)
• ✅ The GGM assumes that dividends will grow at a constant rate indefinitely. (Source: Corporate Finance Institute)
• ✅ The GGM is most appropriate for valuing mature, stable businesses with a solid track record of paying dividends. (Source: The Balance)
• ✅ Critics of the GGM argue that it oversimplifies the complexities of stock valuation and is too reliant on assumptions. (Source: Seeking Alpha)

## FAQs about Gordon Growth Model (Ggm) Defined: Example And Formula

### What is the Gordon Growth Model (GGM)?

The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) is an equity valuation model that calculates the intrinsic value of a stock based on its expected future dividends. It is also known as the dividend discount model.

### What is the formula for the Gordon Growth Model (GGM)?

The formula for the Gordon Growth Model (GGM) is: V0 = D1/(r-g) where V0 is the intrinsic value of the stock, D1 is the expected dividend per share in the next period, r is the required rate of return on the stock, and g is the expected growth rate of the dividend.

### What is an example of the Gordon Growth Model (GGM)?

Suppose a company pays an annual dividend of \$2.00 per share. The required rate of return on the stock is 10%, and the expected growth rate of the dividend is 5%. Using the GGM formula, the intrinsic value of the stock would be: V0 = 2.00/(0.10-0.05) = \$40.00 per share.

### What are the assumptions of the Gordon Growth Model (GGM)?

The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) assumes that the growth rate of the dividend is constant and sustainable, that the required rate of return is greater than the growth rate, and that the company has a long-term horizon.

### What are the limitations of the Gordon Growth Model (GGM)?

The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) has several limitations, including its sensitivity to changes in the assumptions, the difficulty of estimating the growth rate and required rate of return accurately, and the fact that it only considers dividends and ignores other sources of value.

### How can the Gordon Growth Model (GGM) be used in practice?

The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) can be used in practice to estimate the intrinsic value of a stock, compare it to the current market price, and make buy or sell decisions accordingly. It can also be used in conjunction with other valuation models and techniques to gain a better understanding of a company's value.

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